What Is The Rarest Eye Disease
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It can strike anywhere between ages 20 and 40. About half the people who have it will get multiple sclerosis, a disease that attacks brain cells. It usually affects one eye. You could lose vision for a few hours or days or even months or lose a portion of yoir peripheral vision. You may have pain, blurry vision, and see flashing lights. Colors, especially red, might be less bright. Though it usually goes away on its own, the doctor can give you steroids to ease the inflammation and pain. Your eyesight should be back to normal within a year, but the condition can return.
Ophthalmologists regularly care for eye conditions such as near- and farsightedness, cataracts and macular degeneration. But did you know ophthalmologists are uniquely qualified to study and treat uncommon eye diseases as well?
Retinitis pigmentosa is sometimes part of a broader condition called Usher syndrome that affects vision, hearing and balance. There is no cure for Usher syndrome or retinitis pigmentosa. But genetic therapies show promise for treating these inherited eye diseases. Affects up to 7 in 100,000 people.
Stargardt disease can go undetected until adolescence or adulthood, when people develop blurry or distorted vision. Vision loss can slowly decline to the level of legal blindness. This happens as light-sensing cells in the macula die off. The macula is the part of the retina that gives you central vision. Ophthalmologists and researchers are working hard to produce gene therapies and stem cell therapies for people with this condition. Affects up to 12 in 100,000 people.
More men than women develop this eye disease. It often shows up in young adults with a telltale pattern: painless loss of central vision in one eye, followed months or years later by vision loss in the other eye. Ophthalmologists and scientists are evaluating genetic therapies and drugs that may help recover vision in these patients. Affects up to 7 in 100,000 people.
Infants with Batten disease have a genetic defect that causes fatty substances to build up in cells of the brain, nervous system and retina. Vision loss occurs early, usually between ages five and 10, and ophthalmologists are often the first specialists to suspect a problem. Over time, Batten disease damages the brain and nervous system. There are different forms of the disease, but all are fatal. Doctors are still working on a treatment. Affects up to 4 in 100,000 people.
Vision loss and paralysis are two early symptoms of this autoimmune disease. Neuromyelitis optica sparks inflammation in the central nervous system, with swelling the optic nerve (known as optic neuritis, described above) and the spinal cord (known as myelitis). In most cases, initial symptoms improve with steroids or immune-suppressing drugs. But relapse can produce lasting vision loss and spinal cord damage, making it difficult to see or walk. More women than men develop this condition. Affects up to 10 in 100,000 people.
This autoimmune disease affects many parts of the body, including the eye. Small blood vessels in the mouth, genitals, skin and eyes become inflamed and damaged. About 1 in 4 patients experience severe vision loss. Steroids and other medications can help calm inflammation and relieve symptoms. Affects fewer than 1 in 100,000 people in northern Europe and the United States; about 420 in 100,000 people in northern Turkey.
Not all eye conditions fall into your typical categories of refractive errors, cataracts, or glaucoma. From hairy eyeballs to black eyes, bizarre eye conditions can come in all forms. Continue reading to learn about five of the rarest eye conditions in the world.
Having two pupils in one eye, also known as polycoria, is the rarest condition, with only two known cases to date. These pupils could be attached to their own muscles, allowing them to work independently. In a false case, there is only one real pupil, and the other is actually a hole in the iris that gives the appearance of double pupils. In true cases, surgery can help bridge the connection between the two pupils.
Providers have found a connection between the color of your eyes and your risk of developing certain eye conditions. People with brown eyes are less likely to have macular degeneration, cancer of the eye or diabetes-related retinopathy. Providers believe this is because brown pigment may offer the eyes more protection, lowering the risk of these diseases. But people with brown eyes have a higher risk of getting cataracts.
It is characterised by progressive loss of visual acuity. The macula, the part of the retina responsible for central vision, is affected by this disease. Patients experience a loss of clear vision in the central part of the visual field, making it difficult for them to distinguish faces or read. With the passage of time, they lose vision in other parts of the eye but do not go blind, as side vision is not lost. Sometimes, when the disease has progressed, the ability to distinguish between colours may be affected.
Patients with this disease should avoid vitamin A supplements, it is advisable for them to wear glasses with ultraviolet protection and, as soon as the initial symptoms are detected, they need to see a specialist in order to improve their quality of life through the use of peripheral vision.
While there is no cure for glaucoma, there are medications and surgery available that can help halt further vision loss. Early detection and regular eye exams are vital to slowing the progress of the disease.
The signs and symptoms can vary greatly from one person to another. Eye symptoms can range from mild to severe. For some individuals, the symptoms can lead to pain, disfigurement of the eye socket, and, eventually, potentially threaten eyesight. The disorder can vary greatly in expression as well. For some people, the disorder remains little changed for many years, while for others it will worsen or slightly improve. Occasionally people experience repeated episodes of worsening (exacerbations) of the disease, and improvement of the disease (remission).
Thyroid eye disease is a progressive disorder in which progressive damage to various tissues around the eyes can lead to scarring (fibrosis) and tissue remodeling. The extent of scarring and tissue remodeling tends to become apparent during the inactive phase, after inflammation and swelling has subsided. This can change the appearance of the eyes and lead to affected individuals looking tired all the time, or to appear different from people without such changes. These cosmetic issues can have a significant impact on emotional well-being and quality of life.
Individuals who smoke are at a greater risk of developing thyroid eye disease. Individuals who have undergone radioactive iodine therapy as a prior treatment (e.g. for treatment of hyperthyroidism) are at a greater risk of developing thyroid eye disease. Individuals who have other disorders caused by malfunction of the immune system such as diabetes type 1 or rheumatoid arthritis may be at a greater risk of developing thyroid eye disease.
Thyroid eye disease affects more women than men, although men are more likely to have a severe form of the disease. There is a genetic component to the disorder and people who have a family member with the disease or a family member with an autoimmune disease are at a greater risk of developing the disorder. The disorder is more likely to occur during middle age. The exact prevalence (i.e. the number of people who have a disorder in a specific population at a specific time) of thyroid eye disease is not known, but is estimated to be 16 per 100,000 women in the general population, and 2.9 per 100,000 men in the general population.
A variety of different disorders can be associated with symptoms similar to those seen in thyroid eye disease. These disorders include severe obesity, a painful, bacterial skin infection affecting the eye socket (orbital cellulitis), inflammation of the muscles of the eye socket (orbital myositis), and orbital tumors. Hay fever, allergies, and inflammation of the conjunctiva (conjunctivitis) can also cause symptoms similar to those seen in mild thyroid eye disease.
Individuals suspected of having thyroid eye disease will undergo a complete eye examination. This may include measuring the degree of proptosis (eye bulging) using a device called an exophthalmometer. This small device enables an eye doctor to measure how far forward the eyes have moved (displacement).
TreatmentTreatment may require the coordinated efforts of a team of specialists, general internists, physicians who specialize in diagnosing and treating eye disorders (ophthalmologists) including eye doctors with experience treating thyroid eye disease, physicians who specialize in diagnosing and treating disorders of the hormone system (endocrinologists), psychologists, and other healthcare professionals may need to systematically and comprehensively plan treatment. Psychosocial support is essential as well.
In January, 2020 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved teprotumumab trbw (Tepezza®), the first approved drug indicated to treat thyroid eye disease. Teprotumumab is inhibits (or blocks) the activity of the protein insulin-like growth factor-1, which is believed to a play as significant role in the development of the disorder. Affected individuals have shown significant improvement in proptosis, double vision, and overall quality of life when taking teprotumumab.
Some individuals with mild thyroid eye disease may be treated with supportive measures such as dark sunglasses to treat sensitivity to light, ointments, artificial tears, and/or prisms that are attached to glasses. Prisms can help correct double vision. Some people may wear an eyepatch to manage double vision. 2b1af7f3a8