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Iraq's chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons programs, along with its long-range missile development and alleged support for terrorism, were the justifications put forward for forciblydisarming Iraq. However, weapons of mass destruction (WMD) were not used by Iraqi forces andU.S. forces did not discover any WMD during the war. General Amir Saadi, Sadaam Hussein's topscientific advisor, reiterated on April 12, as he gave himself up, that Iraq did not possess WMD; butfew observers find his assertions credible. However, it is not clear whether there are any remainingWMD for post-war inspections to find, given at least one report by an Iraqi scientist that Husseinordered the destruction of WMD prior to the war. Many observers believe it critical for the UnitedStates to find evidence of WMD to justify invading Iraq, but some have suggested public supportat home and abroad does not depend on discoveries of WMD.(45) If WMD are found, many analystsbelieve that international verification will be necessary.(46)
The Search for WMD. Many observers believed U.S. forces would quickly find Iraq's weapons of mass destruction. Despite misleading reports ofchemical weapons discoveries, U.S. forces, at this writing, have not located WMD or WMD-relatedsites. Although it appeared that U.S. forces at an Iraqi military compound at Albu Muhawish wereexposed to nerve agents, later tests indicated that they were exposed to chemical pesticides. A reportabout medium-range missiles potentially containing sarin and mustard gas was not verified by thePentagon or CENTCOM.
The Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) has been negotiating contracts with private companies to destroy WMD stocks that are found. This approach contrasts sharply with the 1991Gulf War experience. In that war, first U.S. air strikes and then ground forces destroyed significantportions of Iraq's WMD and WMD capabilities. Air strikes were able to target well-known chemicalweapon and missile capabilities, in contrast to lesser known biological or nuclear capabilities. (53) Inadvertent destruction of WMD could pose environmental and safety issues, should it occur. During the 1991 Gulf War, U.S. and coalition forces destroyed warehouses that contained chemicalwarheads, including at the Khamisiyah site, and a Department of Defense investigation concludedthat as many as 100,000 U.S. personnel could have been affected by environmental releases. (54) According to one report, the United States' nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) units "havemade major advancements since the Persian Gulf War of 1991," when Czech NBC units detectedsarin and mustard gas, but American detection units could not verify the results. (55) The impact ofpotential inadvertent destruction would depend on what kind of WMD is present (e.g., biologicalweapons pose fewer problems in destruction than chemical weapons, because dispersal is less likelyand they do not require such high temperatures for destruction); how the material or weapons arestored; and geographic, geological, and temporal circumstances.
U.S. Aid Policy Structure in Iraq. To prepare forthe use of aid, a post-war planning office was established on January 20, 2003, by a presidentialdirective. The Office of Reconstruction and Humanitarian Assistance (ORHA), although locatedin the Defense Department, is staffed by officials from agencies throughout the government. Whileimmediate overall responsibility for the war and management of U.S. activity in post-war Iraqbelongs to General Tommy Franks, Commander of U.S. Central Command, the ORHA is chargedwith producing plans for his use in carrying out that role. In addition, it is responsible forimplementing U.S. assistance efforts in Iraq. The Office, headed by retired Army Lt. Gen. Jay M.Garner, has three civilian coordinators - for reconstruction, civil administration, and humanitarianrelief. (81) Plans formulated before the war startedcall for three regional coordinators - for north,south, and central Iraq - to serve under the functional coordinators. (82) Regional coordinator officeswould reportedly be mostly staffed by so-called "free Iraqis," those who have been living outsideIraq in democratic countries, who would act as advisors. Indigenous Iraqi groups are expected tobe formed in each province to propose assistance activities to be implemented in their area. (83) Whilemost of the staff awaits deployment from Kuwait, General Garner has sent advance teams to Iraq toestablish offices in the three regions and to begin to assess relief and reconstruction needs. He touredBaghdad and other parts of Iraq on April 21. 2b1af7f3a8